[213] The participants further stated that the division has become irrelevant with the existence of nation states. [40] Ibn Taymiyyah was reinstated as teacher of Hanbali law and he resumed teaching. satisfied with himself until he became conceited before his fellow human beings. [205], Ibn Taymiyyah strongly opposed borrowing from Christianity or other non-Muslim religions. Ibn Taymiyyah] is a zealous adversary of Greek philosophy, Judaism, and Christianity. The writings and notoriety of Ibn Taymiyya were by and large forgotten until the One of the most They have done greater harm to the community of Muhammad than have the warring infidels such as the Franks, the Turks, and others. ", Finally, in His precious Book which falsehood cannot approach whether from the front or In another book of his, Muwafaqa al-Ma`qul, which is in the margin of his Minhaj, Does he expect that the idiocy that every [68][40] Thereafter, he together with his two brothers were imprisoned in the Citadel of the Mountain (Qal'at al-Jabal), in Cairo until 25 September 1307. [29][42], The second invasion lasted between October 1300 and January 1301. [95] Khalid El-Rouayheb notes similarly that Ibn Taymiyyah had "very little influence on mainstream Sunni Islam until the nineteenth century"[96] and that he was "a little-read scholar with problematic and controversial views. [56], Ibn Taymiyyah collaborated once more with the Mamluks in 1300, when he joined the expedition against the Alawites and Shiites, in the Kasrawan region of the Lebanese mountains. [4] Among the things Ibn Taymiyya said which violate the [40], The number of scholars under which he studied hadith is said to number more than two hundred,[31][41][43] four of whom were women. [88][89], Several of Ibn Taymiyyah's students became scholars in their own right. Ibn Taymiyya and his Times, Oxford University Press, Pakistan. To this end he opposed the celebration of the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or the construction of mosques around the tombs of Muslim saints saying: "Many of them (the Muslims) do not even know of the Christian origins of these practices. intense controversy both in his life and after his death, to the point that scholars were After his release in Damascus, the doubts regarding his creed seemed to have resolved but this was not the case. to say that He has any limit or measure (qadr), or that He even has a dimension [127] Ibn Taymiyyah was criticised for holding this view by the chief Shafi scholar Taqi al-Din al-Subki who presented a large body of Qur'anic evidence to argue that unbelievers will abide in hell-fire eternally. [126], Of the four fundamental sources of the sharia accepted by thirteenth century Sunni jurists—, —Ibn Taymiyyah opposed the use of consensus of jurists, replacing it with the consensus of the "companions" (sahaba).[33][129]. [42], Ibn Taymiyyah took part in a second military offensive in 1305 against the Alawites and the Isma`ilis[60] in the Kasrawan region of the Lebanese mountains where they were defeated. When the Mongols, whom he considered unbelievers, took control of the city of Mardin[191] the population included many Muslims. [182] He spoke highly of a great many other Sufi Shaykhs also such as Abu Yazid al-Bistami and al-Junayd,[182] and went to great lengths to state that Sufism is not a heretical innovation (bid'ah). Ibn Taymiyyah died at a time when he was imprisoned, with resentment from the Sultan and when may of the jurists and Sufiyyah were mentioning many things about him. Believing Mardin was neither the domain of Islam, as Islam was not legally applied with an armed forces consisting of Muslims, nor the domain of war because the inhabitants were Muslim,[191] Ibn Taymiyyah created a new "composite" category, known as dar al-`ahd. [40] After his release, he was allowed to return to Syria, should he so wish. While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise. Michot, Yahya. them with our minds? Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned in the context of refuting the one who opposed that Ibn Taymiyyah be termed 'Shaykh ul-Islam': Shaykh Kamal ad-Din Ibn az-Zamlakani, who debated with Ibn Taymiyyah on more than one occasion, said: Al-Hafidh Badr ad-Din al-'Ayni al-Hanafi said: Ibn Taymiyyah was put through many trials throughout his life and it is extremely difficult to deal with them and present them properly in this brief discussion on him so I will merely list the more famous ones. were divided into parties because of him. 2008, pp. [74] In response, Ibn Taymiyyah wrote his famous book, Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, as a refutation of Al-Hilli's work. Because he officially repented, his life was spared, [40] At the conclusion of this hearing, Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Sarsari were sent to Cairo to settle the problem. [138], This view was also shared by an earlier theologian and jurist, Abu Hanifa. Attributes." [40] Henri Laoust says that through this framework, this doctrine, "provides authority for the widest possible scope in personal internationalization of religion. But how do you allow yourselves to do this without evidence from the [42] The year he began his post at the Hanbaliyya madrasa, was a time of political turmoil. testimony that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah...." Ibn Taymiyyah played a great role in establishing jihad against the Tartars. [81] He was buried in Damascus, in Maqbara Sufiyya ("the cemetery of the Sufis"). disassociated himself from his previous praise. be far removed from anything like unto Him? [122] However, there is no evidence that any of the contemporary scholars influenced him. [210] John Hoover, in his Perpetual Creativity In The Perfection Of God: Ibn Taymiyya's Hadith Commentary On God's Creation Of This World, elaborates, "Following in the footsteps of Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd, Ibn Taymiyya then roots God's perpetual creativity in a Neoplatonic concept of God's perfection. He did this in a gentle and exemplary manner addressing his intellect, and entrusted him to behave benevolently towards the Muslims in Cyprus, not to strive to change the religion of a single one of them. The latter consists in affirming that Allah is This is especially al-`Abbas ibn Shihab al-Din ibn Majd al-Din al-Harrani al-Dimashqi al-Hanbali (661-728). the ears of the Shaykh Ibrahim al-Raqi who reprimanded him. [37] He would pay great attention to the writings that used to be attributed to him;[38] it seems that the constant fabrication about him by his enemies and the twisting of his words was a reason for this. al-Subki and others warned us. [24] The fatwa broke new Islamic legal ground because "no jurist had ever before issued a general authorization for the use of lethal force against Muslims in battle", and was to influence modern Islamists in the use of violence against self-proclaimed Muslims. In: Locating Hell in Islamic traditions", "IBN TAYMIYYA ON FUTOOH AL-GHAYB AND SUFISM", 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240433.001.0001, "A Virulent Ideology in Mutation: Zarqawi Upstages Maqdisi", Greeting Christians on the occasion of their festivals, "PERPETUAL CREATIVITY IN THE PERFECTION OF GOD: IBN TAYMIYYA'S HADITH COMMENTARY ON GOD'S CREATION OF THIS WORLD", "A religious basis for violence misreads original principles", https://www.academia.edu/19877780/The_thought_of_Ibn_Taymiyyah, Why Study...Ibn Taymiyya, with Jon Hoover, University of Nottingham, Abū Muḥrīz Jahm ibn Ṣafwān ar-Rāsibī as-Samarqāndī at-Tirmidhī, Abu’l-Hassan Muqātil ibn Sulaymān ibn Bashīr al-Azdī, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Sayyār ibn Hāni’ an-Nazzām, Abū Alī Muḥāmmad ibn Abdi’l-Wahhāb ibn Sallām al-Jubbā'ī, Abū Uthmān Amr ibn Bhār ibn Māhbūb al-Jāhiz al-Kinānī, List of contemporary Muslim scholars of Islam, Abū Abdi’l-Lāh Ahmad ibn Abī Du'ad Faraj ibn Carīr ibn Mâlik al-Iyādī, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ibn_Taymiyyah&oldid=989135715, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles to be expanded from February 2015, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ibn Abd al-Halim ibn Abd as-Salam ibn Abd Allah ibn al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Khidr ibn Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Abd Allah, Dar, Irfan Jameel. The scope and strength of his effect and arguments. Thomas E. Burmann, Foreword in Ian Christopher Levy, Rita George-Tvrtković, Donald Duclow (ed. elevation over the ship is literal" (. "ever-abiding created object" (, his suggestions of Allah's corporeality, direction, displacement, and that the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- has no special status before Allah [12][115] Ibn Taymiyyah has been noted to have influenced Rashid Rida, Abul A`la Maududi, Sayyid Qutb, Hassan al-Banna, Abdullah Azzam, and Osama bin Laden. [35][40] Regardless, in April 1306 the chief Islamic judges of the Mamluk state declared Ibn Taymiyyah guilty and he was incarcerated. Ibn al-Qayyim says of Ibn Taymiyyah's remembrance of his Lord: A great manifestation of his worship was in his genuine reliance upon his Lord and his belief in the decree of Allah. "[105] Ibn Battūta (d. 770/1369) famously wrote a work questioning Ibn Taymiyyah's mental state. When he was ultimately banned from having any books, papers and pens during the latter stage of his final imprisonment, Ibn Taymiyyah devoted all of his time to worship and reciting the Qur'an. they knew was tawhid al-rububiyya. If I were made to swear (by Allah) by the corner (of the, "I have not seen the like of him and nor have seen the like of himself. "[31] -- Allah bless and greet him -- and the latter ordered the people to fast without asking In the year 701H, a Jew came from Khaybar alleging that he had a letter from the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, which abrogated the Jizyah that the Jews had to pay to the Muslims. [55] Lajin had a desire to commission an expedition against the Christians of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia who formed an alliance with the Mongol Empire and taking part of the military campaign which lead to the destruction of Baghdad the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and Harran the birthplace of Ibn Taymiyyah, for that purpose he urged Ibn Taymiyyah to call the Muslims to Jihad. states from the 1930s to our day. But you promised and broke your promise. such knowledge." the Creator of all things, as, he says, the polytheists conceded. [31] Ibn Taymiyyah learnt about Sufism and stated that he had reflected on the works of; Sahl al-Tustari, Junayd of Baghdad, Abu Talib al-Makki, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi and Ibn Arabi. Ibn Taymiyyah left a considerable body of work, ranging from 350 according to his student Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya[221] to 500 according to his student al-Dhahabi. contemporary, the imam and mufti of Aleppo then Damascus Ibn Jahbal al-Kilabi (d. 733), in bless and greet him -- as a means or seeks help from him (aw istaghatha).... People Caterina Bori. example, the grammarian Abu Hayyan praised Ibn Taymiyya until he found out that he "[217] Yahya Mochet says that, Ibn Taymiyyah's call to war was not simply to cause a "rebellion against the political power in place" but to repel an "external enemy". [40] He was then again summoned for a legal debate, but this time he convinced the judges of his views and was allowed to go free.[68]. [158], Ibn Taymiyyah opposed giving any undue religious honors to mosques (even that of Jerusalem, the Al-Aqsa Mosque), to approach or rival in any way the Islamic sanctity of the two most holy mosques within Islam, Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca) and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (in Madina). His ordeal because of his legal verdict banning the undertaking of journeys specifically to visit graves and resultant imprisonment in the year 726H until he passed away, Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, (d. 751H), Adh-Dhahabi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, (d. 748H), Al-Mizzi, Yusuf ibn 'Abdur-Rahman, (d. 742H), Ibn 'Abdil-Hadi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, (d. 744H), Ibn Qadi al-Jabal, Ahmad ibn Hasan, (d. 771H), Ibn Fadlillah al-'Amri, Ahmad ibn Yahya, (d. 749H), Muhammad ibn al-Manja ibn 'Uthman at-Tanukhi, (d. 724H). Negation or "Ibn Taymiyya's Critique of Shī'ī Imāmology. He argues that concepts founded on induction are themselves not certain but only probable, and thus a syllogism based on such concepts is no more certain than an argument based on analogy. went much further than most into kalam and philosophy. "[97] He also comments "the idea that Ibn Taymiyyah had an immediate and significant impact on the course of Sunni Islamic religious history simply does not cohere with the evidence that we have from the five centuries that elapsed between his death and the rise of Sunni revivalism in the modern period. "[219] Additionally, Abdul Haq Ansari has argued that the ubiquitous notion that Ibn Taymiyyah rejected Sufism outright is erroneous, for while "the popular image of Ibn Taymiyyah [is] ... that he [criticized] Sufism indiscriminately ... [was] deadly against the Sufis, and ... [saw] no place for Sufism in Islam,"[220] it is historically known, according to the same scholar, that Ibn Taymiyyah actually considered Sufism an essential part of Islam, being on the whole "sympathetic"[220] towards what everyone at the time considered an integral part of Islamic life. [35], The first hearing was held with Shafi‘i scholars who accused Ibn Taymiyyah of anthropomorphism. It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",[199] which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates. who claimed that all Muslims among the mutakallimun worshipped other than Allah due addresses Ibn Taymiyya with the words: "When will you stop criticizing the scholars At that, the people, started to cry... when the adhan of dhuhr was given they prayed after it straight away against the usual norm. [33] The consensus (ijma) used must be that of the companions found in their reported sayings or actions. school of thought that they are believers in Allah's corporeality (jismiyya), [187], Regarding the Shia mourning for Husayn on Ashura, Ibn Taymiyyah considered Husayn's martyrdom as a divinely bestowed honour—not a major tragedy. [64] He became involved with al-Afram once more, when he was sent to get reinforcements from Cairo. [40] Thereafter, he was incarcerated in the prison of the judges in Cairo for some months. But if they first attack the Muslims then fighting them is even more urgent, as we have mentioned when dealing with the fighting against rebellious and aggressive bandits. His summons to Egypt, for example, led him to debate and thoroughly deal with the innovators who had spread their beliefs throughout the region. [191] He hold also extreme anti-Christian views and enmity. [75], In 1318, Ibn Taymiyyah wrote a treatise that would curtail the ease with which a Muslim man could divorce his wife. Ibn Taymiyya asserts that things occur newly in relation to Allah and that He has a Is it not enough that [37] His grandfather, Abu al-Barkat Majd ad-Din ibn Taymiyyah al-Hanbali (d. 1255) and his uncle, Fakhr al-Din (d. 1225) were reputable scholars of the Hanbali school of law. [35] The scholars suggested that he accept that his creed was simply that of the Hanbalites and offered this as a way out of the charge. He was intelligent and had committed much to memory and thus, became an, "By Allah, my two eyes have never seen the like of Ibn Taymiyyah. There are so many other works that have been included in Majmu' al-Fatawa, which is a compilation of his writings and verdicts put together by Ibn Qasim and his son. "[35], Ibn Taymiyyah's own relationship, as a religious scholar, with the ruling apparatus was not always amicable. [40][124] After careful study of this book, he was cleared of those charges. That is the declaration of the imams who have exposed the corruption of his It is obligatory to take the initiative in fighting those people, as soon as the Prophet's summons with the reasons for which they are fought has reached them. direction, unless his saying such a thing is a slip of the tongue or a slip of the pen. [31][29][40][48] The knowledge he gained from history and philosophy, he used to refute the prevalent philosophical discourses of his time, one of which was Aristotelian philosophy. Himself from one place to another place? (al-Qānūn al-Kullī fī t-Ta ʾwīl)" in, Al-Jawāb al-Ṣaḥīḥ li-man baddala dīn al-Masīh, "كتاب موسوعة الفرق المنتسبة للإسلام - الدرر السنية", http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195125580.001.0001/acref-9780195125580-e-959?rskey=2XYR29&result=959, "Sectarianism and the prevalence of 'othering' in Islamic thought", https://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_3388, "Ibn Taymiyya's "New Mardin Fatwa". believed himself a greater expert in the Arabic language than Sibawayh, whereupon he and other books of his, to the effect that the hand, foot, shin, and face are litteral [53] However he did not discount the contributions of the grammarians completely. [49], His work was most influenced by the sayings and actions of the Salaf (first 3 generation of Muslims) and this showed in his work where he would give preference to the Salaf over his contemporaries. And the Qur'an has pointed to it in different places, and the sayings of the Prophet have mentioned it, and whoever denies the miraculous power of saints are only people who are innovators and their followers. denial of the above is not found in the Book nor the Sunna." His deportation to Alexandria in the year 709H and imprisonment there for 8 months. [33], There were some jurists who thought rulings derived through analogy could contradict a ruling derived from the Qur'an and the authentic hadith. forgive us and him. al-rububiyya they knew already - and he should have said to Mu`adh: "Invite them In the process he often mentioned reports or stated positions [140], Issues surrounding the use of reason ('Aql) and rational came about in relation to the attributes of God for which he faced much resistance. When the news of his expulsion to Alexandria came to him and it was said to him: "They are plotting to kill you, expel or imprison you." One also notices when reading his biography that Ibn Taymiyyah had the assistance of a number of companions in carrying out such tasks. [35] Uncompromising, Ibn Taymiyyah maintained that it was obligatory for all scholars to adhere to his creed. Religion, the Ocean, the light-giving Pole of spirituality, the leader of imams, the al-Fath Nasr al-Munayji, as a former admirer of the Shaykh al-Akbar: I was one of those who, previously, used to hold the best opinion of Ibn `Arabi and 41, 1975, pp. 103-104. a written statement was drawn in which he said: "I am Ash`ari." Widespread Innovations")... Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal... never said that tawhid consisted in two parts, one "[42] He remained faithful throughout his life to this school, whose doctrines he had mastered, but he nevertheless called for ijtihad (independent reasoning by one who is qualified) and discouraged taqlid. did many Hanbalis in Damascus - and an Ash`ari. It must be considered that he is a misguided and misguiding innovator (mubtadi` perception, and that nothing of Him can be considered distinct from Him. [111][112] The Hanafi-Maturidi scholar 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari said that anyone that gives Ibn Taymiyya the title Shaykh al-Islām is a disbeliever. [35][47] Ibn Taymiyyah adopted the view that God should be described as he was literally described in the Qur'an and in the hadith,[47] and that all Muslims were required to believe this because according to him it was the view held by the early Muslim community (salaf). However, he also believed those who celebrated on Ashura were anti-Shia zealots ("an-Nāṣibiyyah") or ignorant people. Ibn Hajar, al-Durar al-Kamina 1:144-160 #409. To ignorant Muslims they pretend to be Shi’is, though in reality they do not believe in God or His prophet or His book…Whenever possible, they spill the blood of Muslims…They are always the worst enemies of the Muslims…war and punishment in accordance with Islamic law against them are among the greatest of pious deeds and the most important obligations". [125], Ibn Taymiyyah held the belief that Hell was not eternal even for unbelievers. Ibn Taymiyyah was partially supported in his view by the Zaydi Shi'ite Ibn al-Wazir. "[210] In fact, Ibn Taymiyya draws this assertion from his belief that God perpetually creates, i.e. Book and the Sunna? Ibn Taymiyyah's (ابن تيمية) name is unusual in that it is derived from a female member of his family as opposed to a male member, which was the normal custom at the time and still is now. This was for a number of reasons, such as his ability to clarify matters that were vague to the other scholars of his time, such as the issue of fighting the Tartars and the issue of the wealth obtained from some of the sects of the Rafidah. Hanbali scholar Ahmad ibn Umar al-Maqdisi accused Ibn Taymiyah of apostasy over the treatise. insight, and meticulousness there is agreement - then they do not say anything except what scholars for involving themselves in philosophical or dialectical disputations, yet he "[147][148], Ibn Taymiyyah supported giving broad powers to the state. ", "We did not see the likes of Ibn Taymiyyah; we incited against him but were not able to overpower him, when he was able to overpower us, he instead pardoned us and pleaded on our behalf. 105. [40] He was released about five months and 18 days later,[77] on 9 February 1321, by order of the Sultan Al-Nasir. And it is narrated in five of the six books of authentic traditions, and Ibn Hibban Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6, see aqidatul-waasitiyyah daarussalaam publications, Ibn Taymiyya, Radical Polymath, Part I: Scholarly Perceptions (Religion Compass, 2015), p. 101. [40] Likewise, the scholarly achievements of his father, Shihab al-Din Abd al-Halim ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1284) were also well known. [45] One of his teachers was the first Hanbali Chief Justice of Syria, Shams ud-Din Al-Maqdisi who held the newly created position instituted by Baibars as part of a reform of the judiciary. But as Ibn Taymiyyah pointed out, while venerable, the pact was written 60 years or so after the time of the companions and so had no legal effect. His reign, marked by economical and political unrest, only lasted a year. But whoever attributed this to him from among the imams of Islam in purported illustration of Allah's descent to the nearest heaven. "The life and thought of Ibn Taymiyyah, the reviver of Historical Salafi Thought". They say that he was a reason behind it's seizure by the Muslims because of his deeds, advice and sharp perception. concede that spatial confinement and divisibility are (necessarily) properties of An illustration of this is the the Two Sects: Wahhabis and Zahiris"). "Ibn Taymiyya's 'New Mardin Fatwa'. attributes of Allah and that He is established upon the Throne with His Essence. His stance against the Christians: He wrote a letter to the then Christian King of Cyprus inviting him to Islam and exposing the lies and corruption being committed by the priests and monks whilst they knew fully well that they were upon falsehood. [129] Ibn Taymiyyah also suggested that Jews and Christians should be confined to their own specific regions. In the pre-modern era, Ibn Taymiyyah was considered a controversial figure within Sunni Islam and had a number of critics during his life and in the centuries thereafter. [40] Al-Maqdisi later on, came to give Ibn Taymiyyah permission to issue Fatawa (legal verdicts) when he became a mufti at the age of 17. fact that the Shafi`i hadith master al-Mizzi did not call anyone else Shaykh al-Islam in It is reported that none of the scholars said anything to the Khan except Ibn Taymiyyah who said: You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Mu'adhdhins, Muftis, Imams and Shaykhs but you invaded us and reached our country for what? [122], A strong influence on Ibn Taymiyyah was the founder of the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. According to this drivel of Ibn As for his stances against the rulers, they were famous. [40] Ibn Taymiyyah also wrote another book dealing with the attributes of God called, Al-Aqidah Al-Waasitiyyah.

fatawa ibn taymiya

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